The law confers a right upon a creditor to move for the Insolvency of an individual if the said individual commits any “act of insolvency”, the acts which are defined under the Insolvency Act. The Insolvency proceedings are maintainable in addition to other remedy of Civil Suits and Criminal actions. Instituting Insolvency proceedings may be very effective way of instilling a healthy fear in the minds of dishonest debtors that if they do not pay the debt, they may be adjudged as an insolvent. On the passing of an order of insolvency, all the properties of the insolvent, wherever situated, are vested in the official Assignee, for its realization and distributed among the body of creditors. One of the important effects of vesting is that the insolvent cannot deal with his property. No buyer from the insolvent can get a good title. Although Insolvency is not a crime per se, yet it brings the collapse of self esteem and perhaps humiliation in the social background
The law confers a right upon a creditor to move for the Insolvency of an individual if the said individual commits any “act of insolvency”, the acts which are defined under the Insolvency Act. The Insolvency proceedings are maintainable in addition to other remedy of Civil Suits and Criminal actions. Instituting Insolvency proceedings may be very effective way of instilling a healthy fear in the minds of dishonest debtors that if they do not pay the debt, they may be adjudged as an insolvent. On the passing of an order of insolvency, all the properties of the insolvent, wherever situated, are vested in the official Assignee, for its realization and distributed among the body of creditors. One of the important effects of vesting is that the insolvent cannot deal with his property. No buyer from the insolvent can get a good title. Although Insolvency is not a crime per se, yet it brings the collapse of self esteem and perhaps humiliation in the social background.
1. The legal process in the Court of law is initiated by the presentation / institution of a Case, whether in the form of a Suit, Petition, Application etc, in the competent court of jurisdiction.
2. Every litigation presupposes the accrual of “cause of action”, that is to say, reason for initiating legal action in the Court of law.
3. Accrual of cause of action implies and presupposes infringement of litigant’s some statutory right / fundamental right / equitable right / contractual right / or any other right recognized under the statutes or customs.
4. In order to commence a legal action, the person must have some real grievance, which is the foundation of any legal action. For having right to move the court of law, the right sought to be enforced should have already come into existence, and there should be an infringement of it, or at least a serious and imminent threat exist of its infringement.
5. Insolvency, as the name suggest, is a kind of legal remedy against individuals and also against partners of Partnership firms who are unable to pay their lawful debts.
6. Insolvency is a proceeding, wherein on the alleged “act of insolvency” committed by the debtor, the possession of property of a debtor is seized up for the benefit of the body of creditors, generally by an officer appointed for the purpose by the Court. Instituting Insolvency proceedings may be very effective way of instilling a healthy fear in the minds of dishonest debtors that if they do not pay the debt, they may be adjudged as an insolvent.
7. There are two statutes which govern the laws of insolvency in India. One is Presidency Towns Insolvency Act, 1909 and other is Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920. This Presidency Act is applicable to three Presidency Towns namely–Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. The High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay have the jurisdiction to try the Insolvency proceedings under this Act. The second Act is applicable to all parts of India except the three above towns; and the District Courts have the jurisdiction to try the Insolvency proceedings under this Act.
8. On the passing of an order of insolvency, all the properties of the insolvent, wherever situated, are vested in the official Assignee, for its realization and distributed among the body of creditors. One of the important effects of vesting is that the insolvent cannot deal with his property. No buyer from the insolvent can get a good title.
9. When a person is declared as an insolvent, he is subject to many disqualifications in respect of his civil rights. Although it is not a crime per se, yet insolvency brings the collapse of self esteem and perhaps humiliation in the social background.
10. The following acts are regarded as “acts of insolvency” –
a) If in India or elsewhere, the debtor makes a transfer of all or substantially all his property to a third person for the benefit of his creditors generally.
b) If in India or elsewhere, the debtor makes a transfer of his property or any part thereof with intent to defeat or delay his creditors.
c) If, in India or elsewhere the debtor makes any transfer of his property, or any part thereof, which would, under this or any other enactment for the time being in force, be void as a fraudulent preference if he were adjudged an insolvent.
d) If with intent to defeat or delay his creditors, the debtor departs or remains out of the territories to which the respective Act extends; or if the debtor departs from his dwelling house or usual place of business or otherwise absents himself; or if the debtor secludes himself so as to deprive his creditors of the means of communicating with him.
e) If any of the property of the debtor has been sold in execution of the decree of any court for the payment of any money.
f) If the debtor himself makes a petition in the court to declare him as an insolvent.
g) If the debtor gives notice to any of his creditors that he has suspended, or that he is about to suspend, payment of his debts. The notice need not be in writing and it is enough if the debtor gives a clear impression of his conduct that he is not going to make payment of his legal debts. The dishonour of cheque has been held to be a suspension of payments under the Presidency Towns Insolvency Act. Soontram Ramntrajan Das versus SARM, Chettyar, 
h) If the debtor is imprisoned in execution of the decree of any court for the payment of money.
i) The Bombay amendment provides an additional ground known as Insolvency Notice. A Decree holder, may give notice in prescribed form demanding payment giving at least one month's time. If it is not complied, Insolvency petition may be filed.
11. Section 2(8) of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930 says that a person is said to be “insolvent” who has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of his business, or cannot pay his debts when they become due. Not paying one’s debts in the ordinary course of business thus becomes another “act of insolvency”.
12. Although the creditors always have the remedy of instituting civil suit to realize their debts, this ordinary remedy does not extinguish or diminish the creditor's statutory right to proceed under the Insolvency Act.
13. Except as provided under the Presidency Towns Insolvency Act, 1909, which is applicable to three Presidency Towns namely – Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, where the High Court of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay shall have the exclusive jurisdiction to try the Insolvency proceedings, the District Courts shall be the Courts ordinarily having jurisdiction to try cases of Insolvency. Even a single Creditor can maintain an insolvency Petition.
14. Insolvency proceedings are civil proceedings and the proceedings are against the properties of the insolvent. There is absolutely no bar against any criminal prosecution against the debtor to which he may be subject to under the laws of the land.
15. Coming to deliverance and dispensation of justice, the Courts / Tribunals, in the exercise of adjudicating and declaring rights and obligation of respective parties which are before it, formulate its decision by employing laws of the land, the principle of equity, and customs & usages.
16. The principles of natural justice forms the corner stone of every judicial decision and it postulate that both the litigating parties must have equal and sufficient opportunity to deal with the allegations made against them.
17. A Judicial decision must be a self contained document from which it should appear as to what the facts of the case were and what was the controversy, which was tried to be settled by the Court / Tribunal.
18. The process of reasoning by which Court came to a particular conclusion and decreed or dismissed the case, should clearly be reflected in the decision. 19. The decision should be on the basis of evidence on record and in accordance with law.
20. The fate of Justice is tied to the thread of reason: Reasoned decisions are inescapable in the entire scheme of administration of Justice, as explained decision breathes life into court order. Reasons disclose how the mind was applied to the subject matter and reveals a rational nexus between the facts considered and conclusions reached.
Recording of reasons is also an assurance that the judicial authority has applied its mind to the facts on record. The reasons employed not only be logical / conceivable but which will also deal with the substantial points which have been raised.
An unreasoned Order presupposes the non consideration of evidences and submissions on record made by the Party therein and the opportunity of affording due hearing would be rendered meaningless and empty formality and thus in essence occasion the frustration of principles of natural justice for the prejudiced party.
The giving of satisfactory reasons is required by the ordinary man’s sense of justice. Reasoned decisions are vital for the purpose of showing that one is receiving justice.
21. Having said all this, and to say that reasons must be given for decisions, what we really expect from the judicial authority.
Reasons are appreciation of such facts and evidences which are on record, and from which the judicial authorities are entitled to draw inferences and results.
Then comes the question, what is appreciation of facts and evidences.
Appreciation of facts and evidences is, drawing natural and logical inferences, drawing natural and logical results, which necessarily flow from those facts and evidences [the facts would mean those facts which are self evident or are admitted, or facts which are reasonably proved, disproved or not proved].
Appreciation of facts and evidence is an exercise wherein the proved existence of certain facts, provokes or persuades the decision maker to reach a certain conclusion.
And to put it further straight, Reasons are those statements, whereby the decision maker will tell you, WHY your submissions to claim certain reliefs, or WHY your submissions to deny reliefs claimed, are meritorious or if are meritless; or to say, the decision maker will tell you, WHY you are entitled to the reliefs or WHY you are not entitled to the reliefs, claimed or prayed for.
22. I am hasten to add here the valuable observations of the Apex court in the case of State Of Uttaranchal Versus Sunil Kumar Vaish .
Para 18: Judicial determination has to be seen as an outcome of a reasoned process of adjudication initiated and documented by a party based, on mainly events which happened in the past. Courts' clear reasoning and analysis are basic requirements in a judicial determination when parties demand it so that they can administer justice justly and correctly, in relation to the findings on law and facts. Judicial decision must be perceived by the parties and by the society at large, as being the result of a correct and proper application of legal rules, proper evaluation of the evidence adduced and application of legal procedure. The parties should be convinced that their case has been properly considered and decided.
Para 19: Judicial decisions must in principle be reasoned and the quality of a judicial decision depends principally on the quality of its reasoning. Proper reasoning is an imperative necessity which should not be sacrificed for expediency. The statement of reasons not only makes the decision easier for the parties to understand and many a times such decisions would be accepted with respect. The requirement of providing reasons obliges the judge to respond to the parties’ submissions and to specify the points that justify the decision and make it lawful and it enables the society to understand the functioning of the judicial system and it also enhances the faith and confidence of the people in the judicial system.
No adverse Order if No adverse findings
1. It is typical for Courts and Judges, whilst passing Orders and decisions, (to commit basic and elementary mistakes, and most of the times consciously) outright overlooking some of the very material facts and evidences / submissions / Judgments cited, by the losing Party; and drive themselves to irrelevant consideration of facts.
2. Before discussing the aforesaid expression “No adverse Order if No adverse findings”, let us first broadly look at the decision making process.
3. Broadly, the decision making is a process wherein, having regard to the Reliefs claimed, the presiding Judge – (a) examine the (legality) of facts alleged, (b) examine the (legality) of stand of the adversary, (c) examine the materials and the evidences which are placed before him in support of the facts alleged by both the sides; (d) would record his reasoned finding (prima facie or conclusive) as to the existence or the non existence of the facts alleged.
4. The process of recording finding of facts is, having regard to the applicable laws and precedents, testing of facts and evidences, and drawing natural, logical and legal inferences and outcomes, which necessarily flows from those facts and evidences [the facts would mean those facts which are self evident or are admitted, or facts which are reasonably proved, disproved or not proved]. Appreciation of facts and evidence is also an exercise wherein the existence of certain facts and evidence, provokes or persuades the decision maker to reach a certain conclusion.
5. Once findings as to facts are arrived at, the decision follows, either granting the reliefs claimed for, or the denial of.
6. However, what is witnessed in many Orders of the Courts is – either (a) In the process of finding of facts, findings on significant material fact are not recorded at all, by overlooking all the materials and evidences and submissions of the losing party, which are placed on record; the evidences and submissions, which had a direct bearing on the decision of the Court; or (b) whilst recording finding as to material fact, some of the material facts agitated / evidences / submissions / Judgments cited are not dealt with. The situation (a) mainly occurs in discretionary jurisdiction Orders/ Interim /Ad-Interim Orders / and Orders passed at Appellate stage; and situation (b) occurs in Orders passed in original proceedings. [Material facts would mean such facts which naturally arises in the nature of legal proceeding and nature of reliefs claimed]
7. In wealth of judgments, the Apex Court and High Courts have insisted upon recording of reasons whilst arriving at findings of facts and law. In a case (AIR 2011 SCW 5486) before it, the Apex Court have observed to say that Judicial decisions must in principle be reasoned and the quality of a judicial decision depends principally on the quality of its reasoning, on law and facts.
8. Therefore, IF it is contempt of the Court, if reasoned findings are not recorded, then it is regressive and aggravated contempt, to not to record findings at all.
9. Can we really compel the Courts to record finding of fact in their decisions? At least the Apex Court in a case before it [(2006) 9 SCC 222], have said Yes. The Apex Court have held that before subjecting a party to the adverse decision, adverse findings must be recorded against it.
The Apex Court in the aforesaid case, have set aside the Order of the High Court on the grounds that, the High Court, before directing the Defendants to “clear the encroachment”, should have recorded the findings that “Defendants had entered upon the suit land and put up construction subsequent to the undertaking given to the trial court”.
It was a case where the Defendant in a Suit gave undertaking to the trial Court that Defendants will not interfere with the possession of the Plaintiff’s land. The Suit was disposed of on the basis of above undertaking. Thereafter, the Plaintiff moved Execution Application under O.21 R.32 before the trial Court alleging that Defendants have constructed some structure on the Suit land. The trial Court dismissed said Execution Application. The Plaintiff challenged trial Court’s Order before High Court. The High Court directed the Defendants to clear the encroachment effected by them on the suit land. In this backdrop, the Apex Court set aside the Order of the High Court on the grounds that, the High Court, before directing the Defendants to “clear the encroachment”, should have recorded the findings that “Defendants had entered upon the suit land and put up construction subsequent to the undertaking given to the trial court”.
10. The Illustration: To illustrate the proposition of “Findings”, agitated hereinabove, therefore, in a Writ Petition, the High Court, before refusing to exercise its writ jurisdiction on the grounds of availability of alternate remedy, and depending upon the nature of facts alleged, must record a prima facie finding that, having regard to the facts on record, (a) fundamental rights of the Petitioners are not infringed; and / or (b) principles of natural justice have not been infringed; or (c) the Authority / Subordinate court / Tribunals have acted within their respective jurisdiction. This is because, there are ample judgments of Apex Court, wherein it is held that, on the existence of any of the aforesaid grounds in the case, notwithstanding availability of alternative remedy, the High Courts must exercise their Writ Jurisdiction under Article 226 of the Constitution of India. [AIR 1970 SC 645; AIR 2010 SCW 7184; AIR 1999 SC 22; AIR 2012 SCW 616; AIR 2003 SC 2120; AIR 2005 SC 3936; AIR 1958 SC 86 (Constitution Bench Judg); (2011) 5 SCC 697; AIR 1969 SC 556; (2015) 6 All MR 35 (BHC)]
Similarly, in an Application for Anticipatory Bail, the Session Judge / High Court, before rejecting Anticipatory Bail must record a prima facie finding that, having regard to the facts on record, (a) the Applicant is not cooperating in the investigation; (b) custodial interrogation of the Accused is essential; or (c) There is a apprehension of tampering of the witness by the Applicant; or (d) There is a possibility of the Applicant to flee from justice; or that there is a possibility of the Accused's likelihood to repeat similar or the other offences.
11. The necessity of recording of finding on material facts, would take away the arbitrary and whimsical discretion of the Courts, for, they have to record findings, based on facts and evidences which are explicitly placed on record. And when the facts / evidence are seen large, the Courts may abstain from recording illogical findings, which are contrary to facts / evidence placed on record, and seen large.
This is how the captioned proposition should come into play, that is, “No adverse Order if No adverse findings”.
The concentrated view which emerges runs to the effect that every decision / Order of the court, be interim or final, must be based on findings of facts recorded by it, whether prima facie or conclusive, on such facts which naturally arises in the nature of legal proceeding and nature of reliefs claimed.
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